Most people want to have children sometime in their life and expect this will happen when the time is right for them. In Australia, the “right” time to have a first child has shifted from being in the mid-twenties a few decades ago to around 30 today. In 1991, less than a quarter (23 per cent) of women having their first child were over the age of 30. In 2012 this had risen to more than half (55 per cent).
Age has a significant impact on fertility and the chance of having a healthy baby. In women, fertility starts to decline slowly in their early thirties and this decline speeds up after 35. The monthly chance of pregnancy for couples in which the woman is 35 or younger is about 20 per cent, and 80-90 per cent achieve a pregnancy within 12 months. By age 40, the monthly chance has dropped to five per cent and only 50 per cent of couples conceive within 12 months.
While most people might think age only affects female fertility, there is growing evidence that sperm quality decreases as men age, starting at around 45. Women with male partners aged 45 or older are almost five times more likely to take more than a year to conceive compared to those with partners aged in their twenties.
Age-related fertility decline is a cause of involuntary childlessness or having fewer children than planned. To overcome age-related infertility, people often turn to assisted reproductive technologies such as IVF for help.
The facts on fertility. (Post continues after post)
But unfortunately, as with spontaneous conception, the chance of having a baby with assisted reproductive technologies decreases with increasing parental age. In 2014, more than a quarter of women (26 per cent) and over a third (35 per cent) of male partners who accessed assisted reproductive technologies were aged 40 or older.
In that year, the chance of a live birth per started treatment cycle was 25.6 per cent for women under 30, but only 5.9 per cent for women aged 40-44.
Increasing age of parenthood isn’t just due to women delaying childbearing.
In part, as a result of increasing age at first birth, Australia’s fertility rate, which is the average number of babies born to a woman throughout her reproductive life, is at an all-time low.
Existing research – and public discourse – relating to childbearing focus almost exclusively on women. Declining fertility rates are often portrayed as being the result of women delaying childbearing to pursue other life goals such as a career and travel.
But studies we have conducted indicate it’s the lack of a partner or having a partner who is unwilling to commit to parenthood that are the main reasons for later childbearing and involuntary childlessness.
We also know, contrary to the common stereotype that parenthood is more important for women than for men, that men desire parenthood as much as women do. So how do men influence the age of childbearing and fertility rates? (Post continues after gallery.)